The desire of people to communicate long distance was a dream since the beginning of history. And as mankind has progressed and evolved continuously media: rot smoke from the Indians at nineteenth century; the drum sounds of the African jungle, the letters sent by pigeons. And the biggest step towards modern communication system was made a century before there was the Internet: in 1876. That year, making separate studies and working in parallel, two inventors were announced – almost simultaneously – that have created a device that can transmit sound remotely. Their name: Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell, the last of them proving to be faster in the presence of an innovative legal office thus obtaining patent licenses and invention. The Alexander Graham Bell made history as the inventor of the telephone, and Elisha Gray was – absolutely unjustly – completely forgotten.
By the 1990s, when they appeared mobiles and cell phones, the classic phone essentially has not changed since its invention. I mean, he remained the same device with a transmitter and a receiver, which can make long distance via electromagnetic waves propagated along the wires. Now it seems easy, but before Bell to think and put into practice, however, speak and hear you with another man, from thousands of kilometers seemed just a dream.
Alexander Graham Bell has focused on optimizing studies telegraph, a device that already exists and which was used for the remote transmission of signals with the help of electromagnetic waves. It was the famous Morse code, in which each digit and each letter was his assigned a unique combination of lines and dots. The disadvantages were high: both those who were sending, and receiving messages were those who needed to know Morse code and could not be sent and received only one message at the same time. In addition, it was impossible to hear the voice of him that wanted to communicate so you something. Bell started from a relatively simple observation: speech is limited to sounds. And sounds are actually some particle vibrations of elastic medium, which can be registered by ear. I mean, tambourines – those elastic membrane that transmit vibration, sound waves to the inner ear.
And then, Bell thought how to carry sound from the mouth of one who speaks in the listener’s ear, overseas. For this, a device equipped with a microphone and a receiver .More simple: make the speaker’s voice microphone diaphragm to vibrate, and this vibration in turn electrical oscillation. This oscillation starts on the line, like electricity, reaching almost instantly from the listening receiver and its diaphragm vibrate. And the sound of the diaphragm vibration receiver is absolutely identical to the one issued by the speaker. At first, Bell invented the phone have completely separate microphone and receiver, the first must be held with one hand in his mouth and the other – with the other hand, the right one ear. The first demonstration of the telephone conversation took place on March 10 1876 in the US city of Boston, the capital of Massachusetts. At one end of the line: Alexander Graham Bell. At the other end into a neighboring room: Thomas Watson, assistant inventor. When contact has been made, Bell spoke the famous words that have remained in history as the first sentences communicated in a phone conversation: “Mr. Watson, come here! I want to see you! ”
Alexander Graham Bell was born in 1847 in Edinburgh, capital of Scotland. He emigrated first in Ontario and then moved to the United States, in Boston before starting his career as a brilliant inventor. His entire life, Bell was very concerned with the problems of the deaf or hearing impaired, these people with special needs inventor striving to help with equipment and hearing aids. And this humanitarian interest helped Bell invent the microphone and then the phone. The news spread rapidly phone inventories across America, crossed the Atlantic and then stormed across Europe. Everyone would have wanted such a device! The wealthy have been obtained in a very short time, but only after a hundred years has become almost customary device in our homes and offices. In these more than a hundred years, Bell’s invention have been made a lot of improvements. The microphone and the receiver are now in the same song. The numbers are no longer formed by rotating a disk, but pressing the number buttons. Even landlines can have a station that is not connected by wire to the unit itself giving the user the ability to move through the house while talking.
Ordinary wires were replaced with optical fiber, more performance in terms of quality and speed of data transmission. And it all culminated in mobile telephony, where wires and cables disappeared completely, oscillations is directly transmitted through the air now – with the help of powerful antennas and reception or retransmission of funds is achieved through multiple relays. Mobile phones have a memory that can store hundreds of numbers, displays the caller’s number or name, and some of them have very special features: radio, modem or camera. But people always want more and better. And no longer content just to be heard in the distance. They wanted to see her while speaking. And the big manufacturers were quick to provide them with video-phone! A device of the last generation, equipped with speakers and monitor, with which the conversation can take place as and when those who speak it face to face. Have thought Alexander Graham Bell at all? It would be impossible as long as Jules Verne predicted space travel … But is what will happen next? How will evolve phone?